I was working with a SharePoint 2010 VM and decided it would be a grand idea to sysprep the VM and then upload the VHD to Azure. That ended up not working out for me and when I tried to use the same VHD within Client Hyper-V (Windows 8.1).
I immediately got the reprehensible "Windows could not complete the installation. To install Windows on this compuiter, restart the installation." error message. To fix it, I simply had to press SHIFT+F10 and then run the Microsoft Out-of-box-experience feature manually. Not sure why that didn't "just work" but I'm sure a really sharp IT pro will explain it to me someday.
BTW, here's the Microsoft Community answer that led me in the right direction: